Entrance to “extremely important” Amphipolis tomb found

Excitement is mounting in Greece over the excavation of a vast tomb atop Kasta hill in the ancient Central Macedonian city of Amphipolis. The Kasta Tumulus was first excavated in 2012, revealing a circular tomb almost 10 feet high (eroded from an estimated original height of 80 feet), 525 feet in diameter and 1,640 feet in circumference, making it significantly larger than the Great Tumulus at Vergina (43 feet high, 360 feet in diameter) that houses the tombs of Philip II of Macedon and other members of the royal family. In fact, it’s the largest tomb ever discovered in Greece.

Almost as soon as digging began, speculation exploded in the media about who might be buried in such a monumental tomb. Could it be Roxana of Bactria, last wife of Alexander the Great, and their son Alexander IV Aegus? According to historian Diodorus Siculus (The Library of History, Book 19, Chapter 52 and 105), they were imprisoned and killed in Amphipolis by Cassander, distant relative of Alexander the Great and Regent of Macedon, in around 310 B.C. Siculus says Cassander had his minion kill them and conceal the bodies. The largest tumulus in Greece doesn’t seem like an ideal spot to conceal anything. Outside of the fever dreams of the press, therefore, there is zero historical evidence that mother and son were interred in Amphipolis and zero archaeological evidence attesting to who was interred in the tumulus.

With Greece’s economy in deep recession, there was no budget to continue excavations or even to secure the site, now exposed to the world in injudiciously excessive terms as a tomb of great historical interest. Archaeologists found Philip II buried in a 24-pound gold casket. Even the most distant possibility that someone in the Macedon royal family or adjacent thereto could be buried in the Kasta Tumulus would surely prove an irresistible lure to looters.

Somehow the money was scraped up to continue excavations and by Spring of 2013, much of the perimeter of the tomb had been unearthed. The foundation of the perimeter wall was built of large limestone blocks clad in marble from the island of Thasos, the same kind of marble used to make a sculpture known as the Lion of Amphipolis. The lion and blocks of marble were found in the Strymon river in the early 1910s. Greek soldiers dragged the blocks out of the river and used some of them to build a base for the lion a few kilometers away from the Kasta Tumulus. The loose blocks and columns that weren’t used in the reconstruction are still there, grouped together next to the lion monument.

Many of the marble pieces from the tomb were missing, so Michaelis Lefantzis, the archaeological team’s architect, went looking among the lion’s marbles for blocks that may have come from the tomb. He found that 400 blocks from around the lion and 30 from the base were the same in shape, size and elaboration as the ones in the wall encircling the tumulus. It seems the Romans stripped them in the 2nd century A.D. and used them to stabilize the banks of the river. Archaeologists believe the lion was once perched on the top of the tomb before it was tossed in the Strymon.

The discovery underscored what an impressive monumental structure the tumulus was in antiquity. Now archaeologists are on the verge of getting inside and maybe discovering who was so important as to garner such a fancy final resting place.

So far, workers have unveiled a flight of 13 steps that lead to a broad path, flanked by masonry walls, which end in a built-up arch covering two headless, wingless sphinxes — mythical creatures that blend human, bird and lion characteristics.

Archaeologists believe the entrance will be unearthed by the end of the month. They haven’t found any evidence of tomb raider activity, no tunneling, no break-ins, so they expect to find an intact tomb. Anticipation is so high the Prime Minister of Greece, Antonis Samaras, visited the site Tuesday, calling the tumulus “clearly extremely important.”

14 thoughts on “Entrance to “extremely important” Amphipolis tomb found

  1. I doubt an intact tomb is waiting to be opened. If Romans used marble blocks from it and threw its topping, a marble lion, into the river, they could hardly be expected to resist looting the tomb. Also, since almost all of the tumulus has eroded away, chances are that the contents eroded too.

  2. Agreed. Not to mention, that lion is really heavy; even the Romans wouldn’t be likely to haul it off and toss it whole in the river as a prank. Such an action might best be assumed to be a deliberate mark of dislike/desectration, or an assertion of dominance/blow to the morale and culture that the person(s) unknown buried there represented. Unless someone in power had a particular animosity for the symbology of lions?

    Still. Here’s hoping that the Romans and the elements left intact most of the items that interest us now, even if they might not have allowed the in-situ preservation of priceworthy grave goods.

  3. The inside of the tomb is intact and we just have to wait another 2 weeks to hear the details. The sfinx did their jobs. Cassander’s resting place maybe? 10 times bigger than Philip’s tomb… :yes:

  4. Super cool to figure out the provenance of those blocks twice removed and reused from their original construction!

  5. The lion weeps tonight: He appears to be in remarkable condition, but looks a bit unhappy so utterly without his tumulus or mound. The original appearance might have been similar to that of the the Lion’s Mound in Waterloo, which of course lacks a circumfencing marbled wall. Were there really no inscriptions whatsoever ?

  6. If I had to guess, I’d say this is the hill where Aristotle and his wife were buried by Cassander. Although I’m sure I’m wrong.

  7. The tomb will most likely reveal one of Alexander the Great’s generals, based on the archaeological evdience so far. My best would be Aristonous of Pella. Importantly, geophysical testing has revealed 3 rooms inside.

  8. Il faudrait déjà faire de l’archéologie comparative avec les tombes en tumuli déjà découvertes et fouillées …mais, n’ayez craintes ,, c’est ce qui est en train de se faire…


  9. With regard to the “discovery” by Lafantzis, you might look at the article, published more than 40 years ago, “Architectural Blocks from the Strymon,” Archaiologikon Deltion 27 (1974) 140 ff.

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