Volunteer at crowdfunded Lindisfarne dig finds Anglo-Saxon name stone

The monastery of Lindisfarne, famous for the beautiful illuminated gospel made around 700 AD that bears its name and as the landing place of the first Viking raiders in 793, was founded in 7th century by Irish missionary Saint Aidan. King Oswald of Northumbria had been raised and educated at the monastery on the island of Iona, so when he was crowned in 634, he invited Iona to send one of its monks to convert the people of Northumbria. Aidan chose Lindisfarne as the location for a monastery that would become the uncontested epicenter of Christianity in Northumbria for the next 30 years and whose influence would spread throughout northern England.

The Vikings, first from Norway and then Denmark, attacked and plundered Lindisfarne repeatedly in the century after the first lucrative foray. Finally in 875 with the collapse of the kingdom of Northumbria under the pressure of a Danish invasion, the monastic community of Lindisfarne picked up stakes and ran. A second monastery was built on Lindisfarne more than 200 years later by the Normans. It stood until Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536.

Despite its outsized importance to the history of Christianity, the precise location of the first monastery was lost. In 1999-2000, there were a few small-scale archaeological surveys in advance of construction on the island, but nothing concrete was discovered. In 2012, University of Durham archaeologist Dr. David Petts carried out a geophysical survey of Lindisfarne funded by National Geographic. The survey discovered several areas of interest with remains that could be related to the first priory.

Funding for a follow-up excavation was not forthcoming, so this year Petts partnered with archaeological crowdsourcing concern DigVentures to raise the money for an archaeological dig on Lindisfarne, the first to specifically target the Anglo-Saxon priory. The project raised £25,000 in less than a week, plus much-needed manpower from donors who were keen to help excavate the site. Excavations began in June.

The team found several artifacts that indicated they were on the right track. There was a fragment of a sculpture carved with lines and crosses. A fragment of a bone comb was the first datable artifact. It’s an Ashby Type 8b comb, which dates it to between 900 and 1000 A.D. Another datable find was even closer to the target period: a sceat, an Anglo-Saxon silver coin with an animal on one side and the name of King Eadberht of Northumbria (r. 737-758) on the other.

Then they unearthed a small semi-circular carved sandstone fragment. This is a very rare piece, an Anglo-Saxon grave marker dating to the period just after the founding of the first Lindisfarne monastery. This type of stone is known as a name stone because, well, there are names carved on them, and this one is no exception.

Gravemarkers, or ‘namestones’ are probably one of the most diagnostically Anglo-Saxon artefacts it’s possible to find, but they’re incredibly rare. Although a handful of squareheaded namestones have been found, only 13 of these roundheaded ones have previously been found, and they all date to the mid-7th to 8th century AD. placing it firmly in the period of Lindisfarne’s first monastery.

Experts are still deciphering the text, but it’s clear that the name of the person commemorated on the stone ended with the letters ‘frith’, which is a common element of Anglo-Saxon names. Also visible are sun motif, and an indent where a metal boss or jewel may have been placed.

One of the most significant figures in Lindisfarne history had a name ending in “frith.” Eadfrith was Bishop of Lindisfarne at the end of the 7th and beginning of the 8th century. According to a 10th century annotation in the Lindisfarne Gospels manuscript, it was Eadfrith who wrote and illuminated the work. Eadfrith was buried on Lindisfarne, but his remains were exhumed, along with those of St. Cuthbert, when the monks fled the invading Danes. After more than a century of peregrinations, Eadfrith and Cuthbert’s bones found a permanent home at Durham Cathedral.

The team also found fragments of bone near the marker, so it’s possible the spot was a graveyard. The excavation is over for this year, but the finds were so promising, the team hopes to return next year. They plan to crowdfund again. Meanwhile, you can enjoy the wonderful excavation diary on the DigVentures website.

Here’s a 3D model of the name stone:

Here’s a texturized version of the model that enhances the engraving on the surface :

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5 Comments »

Comment by Fritþ the Cat
2016-07-07 04:57:41

Isn’t it something like “a …fritþ” ? – Hér Alfriþ [Aldfrith of Northumbria], Norþhymbra cing, forþférde here, AD 705.

Féng Ælfred [Ealdfriþ] æfter Ecgfriþe to ríce, se mon wæs se gelǽredesta on gewrítum, se wæs sæd ðæt his bróðor wǽre Oswies sunu ðæs cyninges.

Successit Ecgfrido in regnum Alfrid, vir in scripturis doctissimus, qui frater ejus [Ecgfrido] et filius Osuiu regis esse dicebatur.

:hattip:

 
Comment by karlsdottir
2016-07-07 08:04:30

DigVentures accepts PayPal: 10 pounds, $13.28 this morning. If you’re really flush, you can donate at a level that gets you on the dig. (They have some wicked good mead on the Holy Isle.)

 
Comment by Fritþ the Cat
2016-07-07 13:39:53

Sounds good, but first we probably would have to raid and plunder the next kingdom and shrive, in order to take it from there.

In contrast, however, to those kinds of Religions that chose to put a ban on ‘beór’(*), we are proud to parttake in a Religion that produces ‘beór’ by themselves.

The difference usually is beórsele (i.e. ‘beer-halls’) or – preferably – beórtún (i.e. ‘enclosed beergardens’), some of the latter indeed atop Holy Mountains.

————-
(*)Beer, made from malted barley, was a favourite drink of the Angles, Saxons and the Franconians. A convivial party is sometimes referred to as Gebeórscipe, usually with beór-setl (beer-benches).

 
Comment by Keith Macdonald
2016-07-07 19:10:32

I’m sorry to rain on your parade, but none of these finds come even close to proving that there ever was a monastery there. What has been found could have been found in any graveyard from that period. The school report for these over-ambitious archeos would say “Should try harder”

Comment by livius drusus
2016-07-07 22:22:47

I don’t think anyone has suggested the artifacts found “prove” the monastery was located there. As the release noted, the discovery of the name stone and bone fragments indicate there may have been a cemetery on the site. It would probably have been associated with the monastery, however, and could well have been nearby.

So no need to apologize. There is no parade and no rain, just a cool thing from a cool time found in a cool place.

 
 
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