47 ingots alleged to be fabled metal found on shipwreck

In 2014, an ancient Greek shipwreck was discovered off the coast of Gela, Sicily. The ship dates to the 6th century B.C. and was transporting cargo from Greece or Asia Minor to Gela when it sank, probably in storm, just 1,000 feet from the coast. Divers recovered 39 ingots of a brass-like alloy from the wreck unlike any other metal discovered on ancient shipwrecks.

Archaeologist Sebastiano Tusa, head of Sicily’s Superintendency of the Sea, suspected the ingots might be the mysterious ancient metal orichalcum, a material about which much has been said and almost nothing known. In the dialogue Critias, the 4th century B.C. philosopher Plato describes orichalcum as a material already legendary in his time. The metal features prominently in his description of the fabled wealth of the lost island of Atlantis.

For because of the greatness of their empire many things were brought to them from foreign countries, and the island itself provided most of what was required by them for the uses of life. In the first place, they dug out of the earth whatever was to be found there, solid as well as fusile, and that which is now only a name and was then something more than a name, orichalcum, was dug out of the earth in many parts of the island, being more precious in those days than anything except gold.

And because Atlantis had something of a Vegas thing going on, they didn’t refrain from showing off their riches.

The entire circuit of the wall, which went round the outermost zone, they covered with a coating of brass, and the circuit of the next wall they coated with tin, and the third, which encompassed the citadel, flashed with the red light of orichalcum.

In the interior of the temple the roof was of ivory, curiously wrought everywhere with gold and silver and orichalcum; and all the other parts, the walls and pillars and floor, they coated with orichalcum.

Each of the ten kings in his own division and in his own city had the absolute control of the citizens, and, in most cases,
of the laws, punishing and slaying whomsoever he would. Now the order of precedence among them and their mutual relations were regulated by the commands of Poseidon which the law had handed down. These were inscribed by the first kings on a pillar of orichalcum, which was situated in the middle of the island, at the temple of Poseidon….

The composition of this metal has been subject to much debate. Most scholars lean towards it being a brass-like alloy of zinc and copper that the ancients created by mixing zinc ore, copper and charcoal in a crucible. That could create a metal that “flashed with red light.” There is no consensus on this, however, and other theories abound. The Gela ingots were subjected to X-ray fluorescence analysis and were found to be made of an alloy of 75-80% copper, 15-20% zinc and trace amounts of nickel, lead and iron. This fits neatly with the zinc-copper alloy theory of orichalcum.

It makes sense that a valuable cargo like this would be headed to Gela. Founded around 688 B.C. by Greek colonists, Gela (then known as Ghelas) became an important Greek colony almost immediately. Only a century later, around the time when the ship sank, Gela was the most important city in Sicily. It even had its own offshoot colony, Agrigento, home of the Temple of Concord and that awesome story about the archbishop, the prostitute conspiracy and the trial with the shocking twist ending. Its government and residents had access to the best artisans and could afford the most prized materials.

The shipwreck is still being excavated. Earlier this month, divers discovered 47 more ingots of the alleged orichalcum, bring the total haul to a mind-boggling 86. They also recovered an amphora, a bottle from Massalia (modern-day Marseille), the first Greek colony in what is today France, and a pair of Corinthian helmets in outstanding condition. It’s not clear whether all of these artifacts were cargo on the same ship — there are two other known archaic shipwrecks in the area — but they were found in close proximity in a topographically homogeneous area, so Tusa believes they were indeed shipmates.

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9 Comments »

Comment by Rob
2017-03-03 10:24:41

I wonder who got the job of polishing the brass-covered wall? Not sure the copper-zinc alloy would hold a shine too well either! ;)

 
Comment by Eucritta
2017-03-03 10:43:04

If this is orichalcum, then it would seem to be a similar alloy to that used for recent U.S. Lincoln pennies.

 
Comment by dearieme
2017-03-03 10:45:43

“that awesome story about the archbishop, the prostitute conspiracy and the trial with the shocking twist ending”: what a tease.

 
Comment by Karlsdottir
2017-03-03 12:18:37

Now you’ve gone and done it: mentioned Atlantis and woken the nutters. :facepalm:

 
Comment by A. Poria
2017-03-03 13:40:16

..’Nutters’ :lol: ? Here I am, always on guard. May I ask: What exactly is the difference between what has been translated as ‘brass’ and ‘orichalcum’ ?

What certainly adds to the “mysteriousness” here, is the (Greek?) confusion between ‘copper’, ‘ore’, ‘mountain ore’, ‘mountain copper’, ‘brass’ and ‘orichalcum’. ‘Bronze’ is -more ore less- copper with tin, while ‘brass’ is mainly copper with zinc. However, ὄρος is not ore, but simply means ‘mountain’, while χαλκός -particularly confusing to me- can stand for copper, but apparently also for bronze and even ore.

At quick glance, Platon seems to talk of χαλκῷ, καττιτέρῳ (tin) and ὀρειχάλκῳ. Hence, was his outer ring simply a rust-belted iron ore one ? ‘Steel’ is referred to as χάλυψ, here apparently borrowing from Hittite ‘ki-ik-li-ba’ or ‘kikluba’. To make it short, ‘mountains’ must have been very important for Atlantis. Chalybēs, themselves steel-makers, were apparently living near the Black Sea, i.e. right next to Hittites.

Had ‘Atlantis’ left the ‘Bronze Age’ without giving proper notice ? :eek:

 
Comment by Cordate
2017-03-03 14:12:52

Those helmets are in fine condition! I wonder if the nearby masses of ingots acted as anodes to help slow the corrosion of the helmets’ metal.

 
Comment by Android
2017-03-04 14:36:58

What was the purpose of the line of holes in the helmets? Decoration, or did they hold something?

 
Comment by Johanna
2017-03-04 15:02:46

When you look closely at those helmets, you will realize the little holes on all the edges. Obviously a different metal was brazed on there and has now gone.

It must have looked pretty impressive and presumably it was on there for a reason. On a side note, the Aeneid talks in liber VIII of all the metals, armour and Mt Aetna in Sicily.

How a trombone is brazed -and played- can be watched on YT under l3ONCjUU4EY and iipABG_AGHM – Here, I bet those helmets were made in an almost similar fashion, even if plate and machinery were different back then.

 
Comment by Andersson
2017-03-10 16:36:14

More likely those are rivet holes than anything related to brazing.rivets would give the maker an opportunity for decorative dots against a dissimilar metal applied edge or they could have been “invisible”, made of the same metal

 
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