The last witch to burn in central Norway

During the European witch panics of the 16th and 17th century, more than 800 people were accused of witchcraft in Norway. Three hundred of them were found guilty and executed. The last to die in central Norway was one of the most pathetic victims and the domino effect of her case resulted in the longest and most widespread witch hunt in Trondheim. It dragged on for three years after her execution and ensnared more than 30 people.

Her name was Kirsten Iversdatter. She was a Sámi woman (the people historically known as Lapplanders) who drifted from town to town in the Gauldalen valley of Trøndelag county, begging for food and threatening people with curses when she was refused. She was commonly known as Finn-Kirsten, a reference to her Sámi origin. Her ethnicity played a large part in the fear she struck in the hearts of the locals, for the Sámi were reputed to have connections to the demonic world so powerful that not even the power of Christ could compel.

They could summon the spirits of their ancestors and gods of nature with their magical drums (the so-called ‘rune-drum’), enabling them to both see the future and divine news from distant places. Their percussive magic could find lost items and influence fortunes in life and business. Historical sources tell us that Norwegian farmers would pay the Sami for such magical services, but that one should be wary of their company. If one incurred the wrath of a Sami, so the Norwegians believed, the Sami could release a gand, an evil spirit and/or a physical object, which had the power to strike a man dead, even to split mountains.

So when Kirsten muttered imprecations or quickly appeared and disappeared in doorways, people got scared. Next thing you know, cows’ milk dried up, crops failed, family members got sick, horses died and Kirsten was blamed for it.

On February 18th, 1674, Kirsten was arrested in the village of Støren on suspicion of witchcraft. She was charged with harming people and animals in Gauldalen valley. She denied engaging in witchcraft, casting spells or causing any harm. In the absence of a confession, they came up with other charges that were more easily proven. The chaplain and villagers testified that she never went to church, which was a crime in those days. She also had two daughters, one 20, one two years old, neither of which were born in legitimate wedlock. Fornication was a crime too. So Finn-Kirsten was convicted of skipping church and having extra-marital sex and was condemned to die by beheading.

Her ordeal was far from over. Støren’s bailiff Jens Randulf had a reputation for being adept as getting witches to talk. His methods, one can imagine, were as brutal as they were effective. Even after denying the charges in her first trial and even though she was already condemned to death, Jens was so good at torturing her that she confessed to everything and more. She had “given herself to the Devil” who appeared to her as a dog. She traveled the mountains around Støren with Satan and his other human disciples, local ones this time.

Now that they had their confession, Kirsten’s previous infractions took a back seat and the witch trial started.

After this new confession, the case was transferred to Trondheim Court of Appeal. Finn-Kirsten was detained in ‘Kongsgården’ (the King’s royal palace) in Trondheim city – today known as the Archbishop’s Palace – under the custody of the county governor Joachim Vind. After torture and interrogation by Vind and the public officers of Støren, she named more than thirty people as accomplices, ranging from both wealthy and poor in Trondheim to prominent farmers in the valley of Gauldalen. Amongst other things, Finn-Kirsten ‘confessed’ that the son of Inger Rognessen had visited Hell three times; she claimed that another woman called Inger (who lived by the city bridge) had levitated through air with her, and that she knew both white magic and sorcery. Finn-Kirsten also claimed that Inger was eager to become an apprentice of the Devil, but that she refused her the same ‘honour’ as she had only served Satan for two years. Guri, a carpenter’s wife, was alleged to have been ridden into the mountains to meet the devil twice, but Finn-Kirsten could not say if Guri was the rider or if someone rode her! This was the end for Finn-Kirsten. Her punishment was increased from beheading to death by burning, as the statutes against witchcraft allowed[.]

On October 12, 1674, a great fire was set alight by the city gates of Trondheim. Kirsten was tied to a ladder and tipped into the fire. A large crowd watched her burn to death. As she had confessed to witchcraft, her estate was forfeit. The court records describe this estate as “a few ragged clothes,” a sad testament to a life of poverty ended in brutal fashion.

Of the people she named under torture as co-witches, three of them were put on trial, including one Gjertrud Berdal who like so many “witches” was an herbalist who made home remedies for people (and their animals). Her most notable tool of witchcraft was apparently the ability to magically milk the cream of people’s cows so when they milked their cows all they got was skim. Neither Gjertrud nor the other two were convicted.

Even though it lasted years and marked the conclusion of the witch frenzy in central Norway, the trial of Kirsten Iversdatter and its aftermath was soon forgotten. Other burned witches became folk heroes of sorts. The story of Finn-Kirsten was rediscovered and published in 2014 after Norwegian University of Science and Technology researcher Ellen Alm found surviving accounts of her case in Norwegian court records and county financial statements from the 1670’s.

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8 Comments »

Comment by Hels
2019-02-24 05:46:02

Norway followed the pattern of other European countries, after the Protestant Reformation of 1537. Without the Catholic Church pursuing heretics like the Inquisition did, authorities had the freedom to pursue witches, especially women. Do you think there was any more brutality in the northern countries? Or less justice?

 
Comment by Hels
2019-02-24 05:46:32

Norway followed the pattern of other European countries, after the Protestant Reformation of 1537. Without the Catholic Church pursuing heretics like the Inquisition did, authorities had the freedom to pursue witches, especially women. Do you think there was any more brutality in the northern countries? What about less justice?

 
Comment by Claudio
2019-02-24 06:11:41

Norway had a very brutal with-hunting episode in the far North, where, in a small community of 300, 135 were prosecuted and 91 killed over the course of 92 years! (1600-1692). The artist Louise Bourgeois and the architect Peter Zumthor created a memorial for this brutal bit of history – check Steilneset Memorial for online details.

 
Comment by Isidor
2019-02-24 16:35:56

Sami ‘witches’ as the mothers of all ‘secret weapons’?!?… :confused:

———-
“During the 17th century, the Swedish government commissioned a work to gain more knowledge of the Sámi and their culture. During the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) rumors were spread that the swedes won their battles with the help of Sámi witchcraft. Such rumours were part of the background for the research that lead to a book ‘Lapponia’, an ethnographic account of the region, published in Latin in 1673 by Johannes Scheffer.”
———-

Covering a comprehensive history of Northern Scandinavia topology, environment and Sami living condition, dwelling-places, clothing, gender roles, hunting, child raising, shamanism and religion, the book was actually aimed to meet rumors and degrading propaganda, from (particular German) pamphlets claiming the Swedes had used “Sami magic” on the European battlefields –Seemingly, too late for poor Kirsten and others.

In 1674, Kirsten was arrested. The ‘Scanian War’ was fought from 1675 to 1679. Denmark-Norway aimed to retrieve the Scanian lands that had been ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde, after the Northern Wars. Maybe, the book had –not necessarily in combination with any ‘secret weapons’– exactly the opposite effect, and even sped the last hunt for witches a bit up, before it all -slowly- died down.

 
Comment by Trevor
2019-02-25 04:36:25

The scary thing is that in the West today many pseudo-Christians want the same brutal form of Christianity, with religious law above national law.

 
Comment by Dom Perignome
2019-02-25 06:27:43

Trevor, there might be many ‘pseudo-Christians’ in the West, and you probably wont ever have ‘national’ laws without any ‘religious’ ones.

However, in all fairness, the number of ‘burned witches’ in the South and in the East seems to be considerably higher than in the West. Thus, what did you mean exactly?

P.S.: –You better confess, if there are any particular ‘witches’ in Ireland! :evil:

 
Comment by Old Salt
2019-02-25 22:45:33

Baloney, Trevor, and I say that as a Christian.

 
Comment by Trevor
2019-02-26 05:48:17

I only mentioned this because one of the things about history is that we can learn about our world today, and not just about our own backyard, but those of our neighbours. Look at Europe and the rise of the far right – go see what they are saying. In America there are people in government who believe that religious law should be above state law.

 
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