Archive for the ‘Renaissance’ Category

Fire destroys historic castle in Okinawa

Thursday, October 31st, 2019

The UNESCO World Heritage site of Shuri castle in Okinawa, Japan, suffered devastating damage in a fire this morning. The castle is of great significance to Okinawa’s cultural heritage in three ways: it was built in the  Sanzan Period (14th century) as a castle, was expanded and used as the palace of the king during the Ryukyu Kingdom, and it was rebuilt with meticulous care to historic preservation after it was shelled by US forces during World War II.

“The cause of the fire has not been determined yet but a security company alarm went off at around 2.30 in the morning,” Ryo Kochi, a spokesman with the Okinawa prefectural police said.

“It started at the main temple and looks to be spreading fast to all the main structures … firefighters are still battling the fire,” he added.

The fire continued to burn for hours even as firefighters from nearly a dozen engines worked tirelessly to extinguish it. The loss is immense. The Seiden, the main hall, and the Hokuden, the building to the north, the Nanden south of the main hall,and the Bandokoro, the former reception area that is now a museum, were entirely destroyed.

From 1429 until the end of the Ryukyu Kingdom in 1879, it was the royal court, center of government and foreign trade as well as the king’s residence. The wood structures are susceptible to fire and burned three times over the centuries, in 1453, 1660 and 1709. They were rebuilt.

When Okinawa was taken over by Japan and the kingdom fell in 1879, the castle was used as an army barracks. It was designated a national treasure in 1925, but the Japanese Army used its underground tunnels as a headquarters, so it was deliberately targeted for shelling during the Battle of Okinawa at the end of May 1945. Again the castle caught fire and most of the buildings were lost.

Enough of it was standing by 1950 to house the University of the Ryukyus. Reconstruction of the second main gate was completed in 1958, and a major reconstruction project began in 1992 to restore the main buildings and walls. It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2000.

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Bingewatching the Lost Dress of Elizabeth I

Wednesday, October 16th, 2019

The always excellent Historic Royal Palaces YouTube channel has three new videos about the Bacton Altar Cloth, believed to be the only surviving fabric from a dress worn by Queen Elizabeth I. If it wasn’t hers, it had to have belonged to a woman of the highest nobility or royalty. There were literally laws against anyone of lesser rank wearing so sumptuous a textile. (Sumptuary laws, donchaknow.)

Its provenance can’t be definitively traced through historical records, but the pivotal connection between queen and parish altar cloth is Blanche Perry, one of Elizabeth’s longest-serving and most dedicated ladies-in-waiting. By the end of her 57 of years of service, starting when the queen was a young princess, Perry held the title of Chief Gentlewoman of Queen Elizabeth’s most honourable Privy Chamber and Keeper of Her Majesty’s jewels. The Queen was known to have given her hand-me-downs, and Perry donated the textile to her parish church, St Faith’s in Bacton, where her ancestors and her own heart are buried. Historic Royal Palaces curators confirmed that the silver chamblet silk richly embroidered with animals, people and botanicals in gold and silver thread, was once a dress.  There is evidence of pattern cutting that would not be present had the piece not been a garment later recut and sewn to make a cross-shaped altar cloth.

The conserved Bacton Altar Cloth has gone on display at Hampton Court Palace alongside the iconic Rainbow Portrait of Queen Elizabeth wearing a gown that features the elaborate embroidery and precious materials also seen in the Bacton Altar Cloth. The exhibition runs through February 23, 2020. The Historic Royal Palaces videos present fascinating background on the cloth, its conservation and installation.


This is a overview of the find, starting with an absolutely delightful visit at St. Faith’s with historian Ruth E. Richardson, former church warden Charles Hunter and Historic Royal Palaces Curator and Tudor fashion expert Eleri Lynn. The parishioners always knew their altar cloth was reputedly a piece of one of Queen Elizabeth’s gowns, but until they raised the 3 pounds some-odd necessary to frame it and hang it on the church wall in 1909, it was apparently stashed under the vicar’s bed for safekeeping. God I love history so much.


This all-too-short video gives us a glimpse at the conservation of the altar cloth. You see close-ups of the embroidery in brilliant like-new color (a view you don’t get in any of the photographs), the removal of the backing cloth and the patches underneath that while simple are meaningful historical textiles in and of themselves. I wish it were feature length, seriously.


This is a behind-the-scenes video showing the installation of the altar cloth and Rainbow Portrait. Even though there is no narration, it is riveting because you see the nuts and bolts of curatorial work, the mounting of the pieces, the detailed touch-ups on the frames, how they have to navigate through the confines of medieval spaces like those glorious but really quite short Gothic arched stone doorways. I also loved seeing the magnificent artworks casually leaning against the walls of back corridors. It conveys in a few seconds how incredibly deep a bench of cultural heritage is in Hampton Court Palace and, I’m sure, in every other site maintained by Historic Royal Palaces. Oh, and the wallpaper! A big to the dark emerald green damask wallpaper in the room where the portrait and altar cloth are now on display. 

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Bronzino goes on public display for the 1st time in 5 centuries

Sunday, October 6th, 2019

The Getty Museum has acquired a painting by Agnolo Bronzino that has been in private hands for years, for many centuries incorrectly attributed, and never on public display. It was exhibited publicly for the first time in almost 500 years on Thursday.

Virgin and Child with Saint Elizabeth and Saint John the Baptist was painted between 1540 and 1545 at Cosimo I de’ Medici’s court in Florence. It is a vividly colored tableau of the Virgin Mary, Christ Child, senior St. Elizabeth and junior John the Baptist. The marble-smooth, luminous quality of the skin, the glossy surface are characteristic of Bronzino’s style. He was influenced by the sculptures of Michelangelo and revival of Classical sculptural styles embraced by artists like Michelangelo and this work is an example of him at the apex of his career.

A second version of the present work was bequeathed in 1941 by Sir Lionel Faudel-Phillips to the National Gallery, London. Its provenance cannot be traced before its appearance in 1916.

Bronzino is known to have created multiple versions of the same composition on several other occasions. He maintained that changing luminosity to mimic different times of the day allowed the viewer to appreciate different tones and colors, while requiring few changes or adjustments to the composition itself. The painting in London and the work now at the Getty are set at night and at dawn, respectively. The moonlight of the picture in London enhances the concision of the forms, while the diffused light of the dawn intensifies the bright, contrasting colors in the Getty painting.

This version of the painting first appears on the historical record in 1898 when it was sold in Milan. It was misattributed to Andrea del Sarto. It was sold into private hands and fell off the radar until 1964 when it appeared in a London sale. This time it was correctly attributed to Bronzino, his signature having been found in the lower left of the work. Again it was sold to a private collector and would only be published in 2016. Now it has been bought in yet another a private sale, only this time the buyer is a museum.

Before it was put on display in Gallery N204 in the Getty Center’s North Pavilion, the painting and its gilded auricular frame were examined by conservators. The oil-on-panel was determined to be in an excellent state of preservation allowing it to be placed on view very quickly. If you’d like to learn about the Getty’s new Bronzino, senior curator of paintings Davide Gasparaotto will be hosting a Facebook Live event about it on Wednesday, October 9th and 9:30AM PT.

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17th c. Mexican national treasure for sale

Friday, September 27th, 2019

A rare 17th century folding screen that is officially classified a national treasure of Mexico is being offered at an online-only auction by Sotheby’s with an estimated price of $3-5 million. Bidding is open through October 11th. The starting bid is $2,800,000. No bidders yet. As a national treasure the screen cannot leave Mexico, so whoever buys it is going to have to be local or willing to lend it to a local institution indefinitely.

The screen is more than six feet high and 18 feet long, composed of 10 joined panels on a wooden frame. It is double-sided. On one side is a violently active depiction of the conquest of Tenochtitlán. Key events are shown in the locations where they took place as if they had occurred in the same moment and are numbered for identification with a key in the bottom left. Cortés’ arrival is in the upper right corner. Moctezuma II, the last Mexica emperor, is on the fourth panel from the left on a balcony as his assassins below aim fatal arrows at him.

In a deliberately stark contrast, the other side features an overhead map of the new Mexico City, the capital of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, a grid of clean, airy streets lined with stucco buildings with red-tiled roofs, churches, schools, hospitals, public squares, a Roman-like arched aqueduct in the foreground, mountains and lake in the background. Devoid of people, this is the idealized vision of colonial Mexico. All the fire, feathers and fighting replaced with the calm cleanliness of European civilization.

Entitled Biombo de la Conquista de Mexico y Vista de la Ciudad de Mexico, it was painted by an unknown artist in the second half of the 17th century. The fall of Tenochtitlán was based on the account in the True History of the Conquest of New Spain, a popular memoir of the conquest of Mexico written by Bernal Díaz del Castillo, one of Hernán Cortés’ soldiers. The view of the colonial city was inspired by early 17th century decorative maps like the 1628 map of Mexico City by Juan Gómez de Trasmonte, now lost and known only from replicas.

The word “biombo” is a Hispanicized version of the Japanese “byobu,” literally meaning “protection from wind.” Byobu were luxury goods, first introduced to Japan from China in the 8th century, and imported into New Spain via the Manila Galleons that, in exchange for Mexican silver, transported Asian spices, silks, porcelain and other luxury goods from modern-day Cebu in the Philippines to Acapulco and many, many points in between. The trade between America and Asia had an enormous influence on Mexican decorative arts during the Viceroyalty period. Biombos took the Japanese form and replaced the pastoral landscapes, people and animals with narratives and urban locations that resonated strongly with the criollos (Mexican-born Spaniards) of the ruling class who commissioned them.

It is unquestionably of museum quality. The Museo Franz Mayer and the Museo Nacional de Historia in Mexico City each have biombos of their own on the same theme. This is the finest and largest example still in private hands.

 

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Leonardo da Vinci’s mechanical lion recreated

Tuesday, September 17th, 2019

A mechanical lion made by Leonardo da Vinci which once paid dazzling homage to the King of France has been recreated 500 years after the master’s death. The wood, metal and rope lion is 6’7″ high and 9’10” long is now on display at the Italian Cultural Institute in Paris.

The lion automaton was commissioned in 1515 by Pope Leo X as a gift for the new King of France, Francis I. The immediate impetus was the new king’s triumphal entry into the city of Lyons, whose emblem is the lion, on July 12th, 1515. The city gave Francis a lion of pure gold, and the pope rolled with the theme. The lion was also a shared motif between the parties as the pope’s chosen pontifical name (Leo) and the designer’s given name (Leonardo from the Old German “strong as a lion”). The lilies symbolized a connection between France and Leo X. Leo, born Giovanni de’ Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, was a native of Florence, and a stylized lily was on the coat of arms of both France (fleur-de-lis) and Florence (giglio Fiorentino).

Lyons had a thriving community of Florentine merchants and bankers. Their patron was the pope’s nephew, Lorenzo di Piero de’ Medici, lord of Florence, and soon-to-be father of Catherine, future queen consort of France and mother to three kings of France. It was Lorenzo who brought the lion, manufactured by Leonardo in Florence, with him to the Lyons extravaganza.

Leo had good reason to curry favor with the new king. By 1515, the Papal States and France were on opposing sides on the War of the League of Cambrai and at the same time Francis was making his processional entry into Lyon, his army was poised to cross the Alps and retake the Duchy of Milan. Leo’s attempts at rapprochement began as soon as Francis ascended the throne in January 1515. On February 22nd, the pope officiated at the wedding of his brother Giuliano de’ Medici to Philiberta of Savoy, Francis’ maternal aunt. The extravagant lion was the embodiment of the hopefully expanding bonds — familiar, commercial, political, military — between the powerful families and states.

Leonardo’s da Vinci’s walking lion was written about for decades after its smash hit debut by the likes of Vasari and even Michelangelo, but detailed plans for it, if they existed, have not survived even amidst the hundreds of pages of anatomical, architectural and conceptual notes left behind by the Renaissance man. The best account we have comes second-hand from painter Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo who in 1584 wrote that Francesco Melzi, Leonardo’s student and favorite who would accompany him to France for the last years of his life, described the mechanical lion thus: “once in front of Francis I, King of France, he made walk from his place in a hall, a Lion, made with admirable artifice, and after stopping, opened its chest full of lilies and diverse flowers.” Lomazzo later wrote that the lion was made to locomote “by power of wheels,” likely a reference to the internal gear system rather than the wheels near its feet.

The recreation now on display in Paris is based on a few sketchy notes and designs in the Codex Madrid I. Researchers from the Leonardo 3 Museum used partial diagrams, including one of a pulley and wheel connected to legs, as a foundation, but many additional extrapolations were necessary to fill in what is basically a giant blank. One important assumption was that the lion walked by means of a system of springs and gears Leonardo would have known from Italian watchmakers and from Arabic automata that were then popular in Venice.

The lion will be exhibited until October 9th.

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Spectacular finds made on Gribshunden

Saturday, September 7th, 2019

This season’s excavation of the Gribshunden, the the flagship of King Hans of Denmark which caught fire and sank while anchored off the coast of Ronneby in southeastern Sweden in 1495, has recovered some spectacular finds. An international team of researchers has been exploring the ship and recovering artifacts from it for three weeks.

It is the oldest warship ever found in Nordic waters and as one of the best-preserved ships from the late 15th century, it can provide important information about the design of some its famous contemporaries like the carracks of Christopher Columbus and Vasco da Gama.

“We have managed to identify several new keys to the ship’s construction and we are getting closer to solving the riddle of how these kinds of ships were actually built. It increases our knowledge of an important period of transition in the world, the time of the great explorers,” says Johan Rönnby, professor in marine archaeology at Södertörn University.

The ship was said to be carrying King John’s “fatabur,” a sort of portable treasury that held his most expensive clothes and possessions. Some of the objects recovered from the wreck this summer could qualify as part of the king’s best gear: a coat of mail with a maker’s mark on one ring, a pewter plate and a elegant drinking tankard with a crown-like engraving.

Other artifacts that have been found on board are one of the oldest handguns ever found on a ship, coins, sturgeon bones and barrels, including of Danish beer from 1495.

The objects have yet to be analyzed, and more details are expected to emerge from the analysis, that will include both DNA technology and 3-D visualization. And the researchers believe there is more to be found:

“We hope to be able to return for more investigations next year—there are so many secrets down there,” concludes Brendan Foley.

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Monumental Veronese undergoes conservation

Friday, September 6th, 2019

A new conservation of “The Feast of Saint Gregory the Great,” a monumental painting by old master Paolo Veronese that was literally chopped up into bits, is to begin this month. The painting is 14’7″ x 28’10” and covers 420 square feet in area. Cut into 32 pieces by Austrian troops during the 1848 First Italian War of Independence, it has been restored three times in the past, but the last time was in 1973 and it is in urgent need of intervention.

One of a series of massive canvases Veronese created depicting a dinner scene, it still hangs in the space for which it was commissioned in 1572: the refectory of the monastery of the Madonna of Monte Berico in Vicenza. It depicts Pope Gregory I (r. 590-604)  dining with the poor, indigent and, on his right side, Jesus Christ. Giving alms and feeding the people of Rome (many of them destitute refugees of Lombard invasions) was the primary focus of Gregory’s papacy. Legend has it that he refused to eat until every poor person in Rome had eaten, and when that goal was achieved he would invite 12 of the indigent to join him for a dinner at his family dinner table. He was from a patrician family and reached the heights of a civic career in Rome before becoming a Benedictine monk, so I’m sure it was a fine table, but not quite as large as in Veronese’s vision, or as glamorously located.

Restorers from the regional superintendence will first take down the painting in order to thoroughly analyze it with a particular focus on reconstructing Veronese’s materials and painting process. A 2017 examine found a thick coating of discoloured varnish and dirt marring the surface of the painting. Before that can be address, the conservation team will create a roadmap using non-invasive analytical techniques.

X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography will further help conservators understand the chemical composition of the pigments, binding agent and “mestica” (primer), used by the artist.

A key challenge will be distinguishing between Veronese’s hand and the work of the painting’s past restorers: Antonio Florian in 1817, Andrea Tagliapietra in 1858 (financed by the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I, by way of compensation for his troops’ vandalism) and Antonio Lazzarin in 1973. “My aim is to pinpoint who did what, to decide whether to remove it or leave it be,” [lead conservator Valentina] Piovan says.

The guiding philosophy, however, will be for a “minimum of intervention”, she says. Nineteenth-century repairs made with oil-based pigments are not only difficult to reverse with modern water-based solvents, but can now be considered “a coherent part of the work” in their own right.

The delicate final phase of the project will involve retouching in such a way as to “imitate the granular texture of the painting”, Piovan says. “If it’s [too] smooth, you will see all the lines of the cuts in the light.”

Conservators will work on the canvas in situ for two years. So as not to disappoint the three million annual visitors to the monastery, the refectory will remain open to the public The conservation is scheduled to end in 2021.

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500-year-old mummy girl repatriated to Bolivia

Tuesday, September 3rd, 2019

The 500-year-old mummy of an Inca girl has been repatriated to Bolivia after 129 years in Michigan. This is the first time human remains have been returned to Bolivia which has in recent years made concerted efforts to reclaim its scattered cultural patrimony.

The girl, who was eight years old at the time of her death, is believed to have been a member of the Pacajes group of the Andean Aymara people. Radiocarbon dating found that she died in the second half of the 15th century, around 1470. At that time the Aymara were ruled by the Inca Empire before the arrival of the Spanish.

She was naturally mummified in the dry air of the Andes Mountains south of La Paz and remains today in an exceptional state of preservation. Her long reddish black braids are thick and entirely undisturbed even though her face is largely skeletonized. Her body was placed in a stone or adobe tower known as a chullpa, tombs built for the Aymara elite. She was wrapped in a cape made of camelid wool and small feathers were placed in her hand. In the chullpa with her were found leather sandals, a sling, a gourd full of small pebbles and a bag containing maize, fruit, beans and coca.

Not much is known about the discovery and export of the mummy and her funerary furnishings. They have been in the collection of the Michigan State University Museum since 1890 when the materials were donated by Fenton McCreery, son of the then-consul from the United States to Chile, William McCreery. The mummy was placed on public display in the museum in the 1950s and became one of its most popular exhibits, even featuring on a post card. It was removed in the 1970s when attitudes towards the exhibition of human remains began to change. She and the objects she was buried with spent the next 40 years in storage.

It was William Lovis, curator emeritus of anthropology, who started a campaign to return the mummy to her homeland. He figured since the museum wasn’t going to put the remains or artifacts on display ever again, nor were they planning on studying them any further, it would be better from a cultural heritage and scientific perspective if they were repatriated.

In October of 2018, Michigan State University’s Board of Trustees voted unanimously to relinquish legal ownership to the state of Bolivia. The remains were first transported to the Bolivian embassy in Washington, D.C., where an official transfer ceremony was held on January 22nd.  In August, the mummy and artifacts arrived in La Paz. They are now being held in a refrigerated chamber at the National Archaeology Museum.

The mummy, who has been dubbed Ñusta, the Aymara word for “princess,” will remain in cold storage while researchers study her remains with a particular focus on the condition of the body. The objects she was buried with are being examined and any conservation needs attended to before going on display at the National Archaeology Museum in La Paz later this year.

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Drawing found under Virgin of the Rocks

Friday, August 16th, 2019

Researchers at London’s National Gallery have identified original drawings by Leonardo da Vinci under The Virgin of the Rocks. An earlier examination of the work in 2004/5 had found changes to the Virgin’s pose. Vague indicators of other figures in the composition were thought to be line changes between the original pose and the final one. A new analysis using the latest imaging technology revealed there were two compositions under the painting. In the initial design, the angel and Christ child were markedly different than they turned out to be in the end.

In the abandoned composition both figures are positioned higher up, while the angel, facing out, is looking down on the Infant Christ with what appears to be a much tighter embrace. These new images were found because the drawings were made in a material that contained some zinc, so it could be seen in the macro x-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) maps showing where this chemical element was present, and also through new infrared and hyperspectral imaging.

Why Leonardo abandoned this first composition still remains a mystery. The new research has shown how the second underdrawing, while aligning much more closely to the finished version, nonetheless displays his characteristic elaborations and adjustments from drawing to painting. For instance, the angle of the Infant Christ’s head was changed so that he was seen in profile, while some parts of the angel’s curly hair have been removed. Handprints resulting from patting down the priming on the panel to create an even layer of more or less uniform thickness can also be seen, probably the work of an assistant – but perhaps even by Leonardo himself.

It’s a particularly intriguing find given the complicated history behind the composition of the piece. Commissioned in 1483 by the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception for their chapel abutting the Church of San Francesco Grande in Milan, the painting as originally envisaged by the confraternity was a traditional Renaissance view of the Immaculate Conception — Mary, angels, an architectural setting — but Leonardo instead went his own way, creating a rocky, humid, cave-like setting and depicting the Virgin, the Christ Child and John the Baptist. This was his first commission in Milan; you’d think he might try to please his clients instead of blowing them off in favor of his own vision. The result caused some consternation among the confraternity and when Leonardo did not get paid the full amount, he sold the painting to a private buyer. That first version of the Virgin on the Rocks is now at the Louvre.

Ten years later, Leonardo began working on a second version, likely because the confraternity paid its balance. It was the exact same dimension (the arch-shaped frame was already made, after all) and the same subject, but with notable differences in composition and palette. The newly-discovered underdrawings are certainly in his hand, which is not the case for the application of the paint itself, so they uniquely show the false starts and evolution of Leonardo’s vision for the work.

Starting November 9, 2019, the National Gallery will host a new exhibition centered around The Virgin of the Rocks. Leonardo: Experience a Masterpiece takes an innovative approach to give visitors an immersive experience into the context of the painting and of its creator.

A wide range of multi-sensory experiences will be presented across four separate rooms. Visitors will be able to step inside a similar chapel setting and see what art historical research suggests the painting’s setting may have looked like. They will be able to explore Leonardo’s own research, which informed the specific compositions in the painting. In addition they will see how Leonardo used his scientific studies to create strong effects of light and shadow in his painting. The modern process of discovery in a conservation studio, where the mysteries and secrets of a painting are uncovered, will also be brought to life with visitors being able to engage in detail with the latest findings underneath ‘The Virgin of the Rocks’.

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Intact Renaissance shipwreck found in Baltic Sea

Monday, July 22nd, 2019

An international team of researchers has discovered an intact shipwreck from the late 15th, early 16th century in the Baltic Sea. Nursed in the cold bosom of the Baltic, the ship is in exceptional condition and has a solid claim to being the best preserved Early Modern Period shipwreck to be discovered in our times.

The shipwreck was first spotted as a blip on a side-scan sonar in 2009 during a survey the Swedish Maritime Administration. The anomaly on the seafloor was noted as a likely shipwreck which is not surprising as the cold Baltic is full of them; it wasn’t pursued further at the time. Earlier this year that blip took more concrete form when a robotic camera dispatched by commercial seabed surveying firm MMT to investigate a potential undersea route for the Nord Stream 2 natural gas pipeline captured video of a wooden ship.

In March, MMT experts, post-graduate students and maritime archaeologists from the University of Southampton, from the Maritime Archaeology Research Institute of Södertörn University, and students from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm working on Artificial Intelligence applications to improving robotics functions in dark, cold underwater conditions came together to explore the shipwreck. Using the state-of-the-art ROV Surveyor Interceptor, the team illuminated the wreck and took thousands of high-resolution photographs. Those were then stitched together with photogrammetric technology to create an extremely accurate, detailed composite of the ship from every possible angle.

From their examination of the wreck, archaeologists believe it dates to the Renaissance, making it earlier than the Henry VIII’s ill-fated flagship the Mary Rose (1545) or the Swedish warship Mars (1564). Even in the cold, woodworm-less waters of the Baltic, a ship of this age is an extremely rare discovery. The later ships were larger, stronger and there were a lot more of them getting into trouble during the Northern Seven Year’s Wars (1563-1570). It has the great archaeological advantage of not having blown up like the Mars did, or having been severely damaged in any other way.

Her hull structure is preserved from the keel to the top deck with all of her masts and some elements of the standing rigging still in place, including the bowsprit and a rudimentary decorated transom stern and other elements of the ship rarely ever seen such as the wooden capstan in place and bilge pump. Still on the main deck, an incredible and rare find, the ship’s tender boat, used to ferry crew to and from the ship and leaning against the main mast. A testament of the tension on human relationships of the time are the swivel guns, which are still in place on the gun deck. 

The design of the ship is very similar to depictions of the Danish warship Gribshunden which went down off the coast of Ronneby, Sweden, in 1495. It burned down, however, so there are very scant extant remains. The name of the newly-discovered ship has not been found yet. The team has dubbed it Okänt Skepp, meaning “unknown ship.”  

The team plans to return to the shit to explore it further and retrieve one of the wooden planks for dating. Dendrochronology (tree ring analysis) can date wood with extraordinary precision, so if all goes well, a single timber could tell us the date of the wood within a year of its tree having been felled. That would 

Here is footage of the shipwreck being scanned by the ROV, followed by a 360 video of the photogrammetry model. In conclusion, this ship is awesome.

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