Since Alexander Fleming first noticed that the Penicillium mold that had accidentally contaminated his petri dish was lethal to the Staphylococcus bacteria inside it in 1928, humans have become accustomed to a world where infections can be cured with no more effort than having to swallow a few uncomfortably large pills for a week. The days when a scraped knee could kill seem like ancient history, but they’re not. Bacteria have become increasingly resistant to the antibiotics in the medical arsenal and with very few new antibiotics discovered over the past two decades, the prospect of a world of infectious microbes we cannot kill has become a terrifying reality. According to the CDC, 23,000 people a year die from antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.
Even Fleming knew the antibiotic gravy train ran on unstable tracks. He noted in the official Nobel Lecture (pdf) he delivered in the days leading up to the ceremony awarding him the 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine: “It is not difficult to make microbes resistant to penicillin in the laboratory by exposing them to concentrations not sufficient to kill them, and the same thing has occasionally happened in the body.” The bacteria that survive the antibiotic onslaught and their descendants develop resistance to that antibiotic. If any survive the next antibiotic deployed against them, they become resistant to that one as well and on and on through the entire pharmacopoeia.
That’s how Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria came to set up shop particularly in hospitals because MRSA laughs at our puny human doctors with their losery old penicillins and amoxicillins. The rate of MRSA infections at US academic hospitals doubled between 2003 and 2008, and since there hasn’t been a new class of antibiotics discovered since the 1980s, MRSA and other drug-resistant bacteria are only getting stronger.
The potential disaster here is so far-reaching it’s hard to grasp. It’s not just pneumonia and injuries that used to be easily treated that will become many times more fatal. Cancer treatment, organ and device (mechanical knees, hips, etc.) transplants, dialysis, open-heart surgery, any surgery at all, for that matter, including plastic surgery, even getting tattoos all rely heavily on antibiotics to keep patients alive. See the World Health Organization’s Antimicrobial Resistance: Global Report on Surveillance (pdf) to learn more about the post-antibiotic apocalypse we’re facing.
Scientists all over the world are looking for new drugs to combat the rise of superbugs, among them a team from the University of Nottingham who have taken an approach so old it’s new again. The brain child of Dr. Christina Lee, an Anglo-Saxon expert from the University’s English department, the study tested the efficacy of a recipe for a salve to treat eye infections found in Bald’s Leechbook, a collection of remedies for illness written in Old English around 950 A.D. in Winchester that is now in the British Library. Here is a translation of the recipe in volume two of Oswald Cockayne’s outstandingly titled Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England, published in 1864-6. (I need to integrate “wortcunning” into my daily vocabulary.)
Work an eye salve for a wen, take cropleek and garlic, of both equal quantities, pound them well together, take wine and bullocks gall, of both equal quantities, mix with the leek, put this then into a brazen vessel and let it stand nine days in the brass vessel, wring out through a cloth and clear it well, put it into a horn and about night time apply it with a feather to the eye; the best leechdom.
No disrespect to Oswald Cockayne and his mastery of the catchy book title, but his translation needed updating for use in a scientific context. Dr. Lee translated the recipe from the original manuscript, researching ambiguous words for optimal accuracy. Researchers, led by microbiologist Dr. Freya Harrison, were meticulous in recreating the recipe as faithfully as possibly, even securing the wine from a vineyard that is known to have been in use in the 9th century. They made four batches of the salve and a control batch without any of the vegetable ingredients, then applied Bald’s salve to well-established MSRA cultures (with a dropper, not a feather) and waited for 24 hours before counting the surviving bacteria.
The team made artificial wound infections by growing bacteria in plugs of collagen and then exposed them to each of the individual ingredients, or the full recipe. None of the individual ingredients alone had any measurable effect, but when combined according to the recipe the Staphylococcus populations were almost totally obliterated: about one bacterial cell in a thousand survived.
The team then went on to see what happened if they diluted the eye salve – as it is hard to know just how much of the medicine bacteria would be exposed to when applied to a real infection. They found that when the medicine is too dilute to kill Staphylococcus aureus, it interfered with bacterial cell-cell communication (quorum sensing). This is a key finding, because bacteria have to talk to each other to switch on the genes that allow them to damage infected tissues. Many microbiologists think that blocking this behaviour could be an alternative way of treating infection.
Bald’s onion and bile salve, it turns out, is an MRSA-killing machine.
Dr Harrison commented: “We thought that Bald’s eyesalve might show a small amount of antibiotic activity, because each of the ingredients has been shown by other researchers to have some effect on bacteria in the lab – copper and bile salts can kill bacteria, and the garlic family of plants make chemicals that interfere with the bacteria’s ability to damage infected tissues. But we were absolutely blown away by just how effective the combination of ingredients was. We tested it in difficult conditions too; we let our artificial ‘infections’ grow into dense, mature populations called ‘biofilms’, where the individual cells bunch together and make a sticky coating that makes it hard for antibiotics to reach them. But unlike many modern antibiotics, Bald’s eye salve has the power to breach these defences.”
It worked in vivo, too, on mice with MRSA-infected skin wounds at Texas Tech University.
As promising as this study is, it’s still in the early stages. The AncientBiotics program is crowdfunding to hire a summer intern to help them move forward briskly with this incredibly exciting research. They just reached their goal of £1,000 so they’ll definitely get funded, but given the modesty of the original goal and the global importance of this project, I’d love to see them raise a lot more than that. There are 26 days left in the fundraiser. Donate!
32 thoughts on “Anglo-Saxon eye salve kills MRSA superbug”
To the people who question those of use who study medieval history and languages: :p
Hell yes. I’ll deploy this story on the next jackass who says my History and English degree prepared me only to ask people if they want fries with that.
Right?! Somebody needs to go through the entire Leechbook to see what other gems lie hidden within.
Fishy piece of joke. 1st of April isn’t it?
Nope, it’s all real. I don’t do April 1st jokes because I can never think of any clever ones.
Have I mentioned how much I love, love, love this blog! Where do you *find* these things? And this one’s got such wonderful possibilities…
[Is it wrong to suggest “Leechdom, Wortcunning and Starcraft” as a Druidic legal firm for my next D&D game?]
If that’s wrong, I don’t want to be right. “Leechdom, Wortcunning and Starcraft” was born to be a Druidic law firm name. :notworthy:
😆 😆 😆
I have no problems believing this. It is tremendously exciting. As a person with a relapsing infectious disease and as a scientist, I am very familiar with the issues around both the bind we’ve gotten into with modern antibiotics and with the potential in older treatment regimens. Periodically I must go on a multi-agent antibacterial regimen. Doctors like those who treat me have found that a carefully selected regimen of herbal and nutriceuticals both compliment and enhance the action of the antibiotics, resulting in a shorter and more effective treatment period.
Most of those currently in use have come from various Asian traditional medicine, from traditinal remedies used in Africa and the pre-Columbian Americas, plus modern explorations in these areas (and resulting exploitation of the natural resources there).
But the heritage from Europe have been largely ignored. There are “herbals” published pertaining to remedies used in western Europe, but they tend to be simply lists, compilations of leftover bits of knowledge. The actual practice of traditional healing and the preparations used were dismissed long ago as witchcraft and “old wives tales”, and much of that knowledge seemed to disappear. Bless lovers of old books and believers in the innate intelligence of human beings for not giving up.
Now what we are just beginning to understand is being validated by taking a look at the knowledge of the past: the ability for various agents use together to potentiate each other or to complement each other to heal. It is reassuring to know that at last that body of knowledge is being resurrected and being brought into our time. Those “superstitious and primitive” European barbarians were not living in darkness. It is just that we could not see past the veil drawn over them.
I recognize the terms used in the film to describe what this preparation is doing. Researchers in the disease I live with use the same terms. Maybe someday people like me will be taking a preparation of odd ingredients gleaned from that old, remarkable book.
I am officially petitioning Woden that your illness be cured once and for all by an Anglo-Saxon remedy. It would be perfect justice.
I can support that. I think it also would make a good name for a clinic specializing in treating difficult diseases. I would love to be able to make an appointment with Dr. Wortcunning.
I would trust Dr. Wortcunning with my life, no questions asked.
I saw this somewhere else and thought it an interesting story. I don’t know why I didn’t think I’d see it here. But, man, am I glad it is here. I very much prefer your research and explanation of things. Also, I didn’t read the other stories because they didn’t include the awesome title and word “wortcunning.” I mean, COME ON! WAY TO BURY THE LEDE, RIGHT?
So, so right. It’s a clear illustration of how desperately press outlets need more history nerds on staff.
Seriously impressive stuff. I just tried to imagine the response from ‘normal’ medical researchers when hearing about this. And then their response to the results….
Although, considering the importance of finding new antibiotics and the amount of money spent on pharmaceutical research, isn’t it crazy that this program has to rely on crowdfunding to get the manpower for the research? (of course, I know, it’s a university not a commercial research facility and there’s no direct money-spinning plan here, so they won’t get the big bucks for it… Sometimes I’m not quite cynical enough for the real world.)
It really is crazy that they have to beg people hat in hand for a measly thousands pounds. Perhaps the attention the study has received over the past couple of days will inspire some serious funding from people with deep pockets.
An update on the crowdfunding page says Dr. Harrison just presented their results to a Society for Microbiology conference and it was very well received. The team got some good feedback that they plan to use going forward.
Speaking of re-examining medieval remedies, the works of St. Hildegarde of Bingen might provide
some useful recipes.
Well, I think this proves ancient aliens visited the earth!
I ***love*** that an English professor is behind a new (old) medical discovery!
–Linguist & old documents nerd
And that her specific expertise was necessary for the microbiologists to be as accurate as possible. Go English nerds, go!
You don’t but others do. The trick is to let others (like you) take the joke seriously. And they achieved their goal, I think. By the way, an rather expensive one too this time. 1000 euro’s on crowdfunding to pay anybody to take the remedy ? You must be joking!
I’m not sure what you’re talking about. The crowdfunding was to employ an undergraduate intern to help them with their work this summer. Obviously the study is miles away from human trials. In any case, I posted this story on April 1st, but if you click on the link, you’ll see the University of Nottingham press release was issued on March 30th. Do you imagine that’s all part of their cunning plan to defraud people as a joke? “We’ll issue this two days early. That’ll April Fool ’em but good! Then when we’ve completely obliterated our academic integrity by literally stealing from people, everyone will have a right laugh.”
😆 Not a laughing matter. This is as serious an issue as any that can be imagined. Here in the U.S. MRSA strains are no longer only found in hospitals. It has found its way out into the public. Worse yet at public beaches and bathing area. This discovery is monumental and timely beyond belief. Hooray for the brave souls to step outside of traditional research standards and try an ancient methodology to resolve a modern dilema. :hattip:
If this is no joke, thank you so much for your efforts. I am about to make a garlic poultice for a staph infection which is not responding to hospital grade antibiotics.
I would attempt to make this although ox gall sounds difficult to obtain. Is that the same as Ox bile which I have heard in digestive enzymes?
Please reply to this post which is linked to my email if and when there are further developments, a product etc
It’s definitely not a joke. Ox gall is bile generally derived from the livers of cows. This recipe specifies that it’s from a bullock. I have no idea how you’d go about securing some.
The research team did a great deal of work to create a version of the salve that would be as close as possible to the 10th century one, like finding wine from an ancient vineyard. I don’t think that’s something you can replicate at home.
I’m so sorry to hear about your illness. Best wishes on a speedy and thorough recovery.
They stated that they used distilled water to reconstitute ox biles salts. I ordered freeze dried online…(yes, researching without a lab) 🙂
Is the ox bile a salt or extract?what kind of wine did they use? How much of each?
I know this is a year late, but ox gall can be obtained at art supply stores, although I doubt that it is of ‘medical grade’. But many chemical supply companies also sell dehydrated ox gall, although you may have to buy 10 kilograms of the stuff at a time.
Do we know how did medieval doctors stored this recipe, and does anyone know how long it kept?