Tutankhamun’s dagger made from meteoric iron

When Howard Carter opened the sarcophagus of King Tutankhamun and unwrapped the mummy in 1925, three years after his discovery of the tomb, he found 107 objects placed in the linen bandages. One of them was an iron dagger with a gold handle elaborately decorated with cloisonné enamel, gold granulation in geometric patterns and a crystal pommel. Its sheath was made of gold with a lily motif engraved on one side and feathers terminating in a jackal head at the peak of the sheath on the other side. It was found on his right thigh.

Iron is very rare in Egyptian tombs. Bronze was the dominant metal in funerary artifacts until the Assyrian Occupation (656-639 B.C.), 600 years after iron production became widespread elsewhere around the Mediterranean. When iron has been found in a funerary context, archaeologists have suspected it was of extra-terrestrial origin. Since it falls from the sky, it would have been seen as a direct gift from the gods. Iron meteorite impact craters have been discovered in Egypt. One found in southern Egypt in 2008 dates to within 5,000 years, so it could well have been a source of godly iron for the ancients.

It’s also possible that the iron in Tutankhamun’s dagger has more earthly origins. Iron was a byproduct of bronze and copper smelting, metals Egypt produced in abundance, and there are references in the 14th century Amarna letters to gifts of valuable iron from the King of Mitanni. There has been much debate on the question since 1925. Two studies done on the metal of the dagger had conflicting results. Iron meteorites are composed mainly of iron and nickel with trace amounts of cobalt, phosphorus, sulfur and carbon. The nickel content in iron produced from ore is no more than 4 percentage by mass (wt%), while in iron meteorites it’s at least 5 wt% and can go up to 35 wt%. The first study in 1970 found high nickel content indicative of meteoric iron, but it was never published and the methodology is unknown. A 1994 X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry analysis found a nickel content of 2.8 wt%, which is too low for meteoritic iron.

Now a new study by an international team of researchers has used state-of-the-art XRF technology to determine whether the iron in King Tutankhamun’s dagger is of meteoric origin. Italian and Egyptian researchers from the Politecnico di Milano, the University of Pisa, the Cairo Museum, the University of Fayoum, and the Politecnico di Torino compared XRF measurements of two areas of Tutankhamun’s dagger, 11 meteorites of clear composition and 11 examples of certified steel. Their analysis found that the dagger’s blade is 11 wt% nickel, which can only be meteoritic iron. The amount of cobalt, .6 wt%, is also consistent with the ratio of nickel to cobalt found in iron meteorites.

Our finding confirms that excavations of important burials, including that of King Tutankhamun, have uncovered pre-Iron Age artifacts of meteoritic origin (Johnson et al. 2013).

As the only two valuable iron artifacts from ancient Egypt so far accurately analyzed are of meteoritic origin, we suggest that ancient Egyptian attributed great value to meteoritic iron for the production of fine ornamental or ceremonial objects up until the 14th C. BCE. Smelting of iron, if any, has likely produced low-quality iron to be forged into precious objects. In this context, the high manufacturing quality of Tutankhamun’s dagger blade is evidence of early successful iron smithing in the 14th C. BCE. Indeed, only further in situ, nondestructive compositional analysis of other time-constrained ancient iron artifacts present in world collections, which include the other iron objects discovered in Tutankhamun’s tomb, will provide significant insights into the use of meteoritic iron and into the reconstruction of the evolution of the metal working technologies in the Mediterranean.

Share

RSS feed

9 Comments »

Comment by Ambrosius
2016-06-01 04:42:28

The sacred tool used for ‘the opening of the mouth’ ceremony in mummification rituals is believed to have been made from meteorite iron as well.

There is also the green glass like substance made by meteor impact in the Egyptian desert, which was used to make a scarab beetle in one of his most important funeral jewels.

see the BBC documentary “Tutankhamun’s Fireball.” on YouTube for information on the ‘gem’.

 
Comment by Valeria
2016-06-01 06:19:59

That 3 millennia old blade from Tut’s coffin, despite the botched mummification and the induced heat, appears to be in better shape than some of my own more recent ones.

Today, nickel is e.g. used in steels and as a binder in the cemented tungsten carbide industry in 6 to 12 percent by weight, while other early steel alloys like ‘Ferrum Noricum’ are -by some- said to have indeed contained meteoric components.

The more than 2000 sorts of steel, however, are mainly ferrum with different amounts of additional wanted alloys, plus of course the processed removal of unwanted ones.

The Ferrum Noricum was widely used for the weapons of the Roman military after Noricum joined the empire in 16BC. “harder than iron tempered by Noric fire [was Anaxarete towards the advances of Iphis’]” – Ovid: Metamorphoses, 14.712, Iphis et Anaxarete.

 
Comment by Cordate
2016-06-01 15:13:19

It’s a magical artifact that continually phases back and forth between terrestrial and otherworldly origins, confounding test results across the decades :)

 
Comment by dearieme
2016-06-01 15:25:58

Now, now, Cordate, you’re only being ironic.

 
Comment by Cordate
2016-06-02 13:38:39

Only to get a meteoric rise out of you, dearieme ;)

 
Comment by Thomas Hazlewood
2016-06-02 16:38:53

Apparently, a unique metal Bond was forged as a result of this Skyfall. Yet possessing a Godly gift could not defend Tutenkhamen from the fate No Doctor can prevent. Unlike Moses, who rose from Rushes to Love a Queen, Tutenkhamen would receive no Quantity of Solace from his Deity. (I almost feel bad about this…)

 
Comment by Kathie V.
2016-06-06 16:44:20

When this appeared in D.C. years ago,I think I remember the blade being gol. Didn’t Buster Warenski make a fabulous meticulous copy a few years ago, with, I believe, a gold blade. Have they found it’s iron under gold coating?

Comment by livius drusus
2016-06-06 16:54:01

You recall correctly. There were two daggers buried with King Tut. One blade was gold, one was iron.

 
 
Comment by Kathie V.
2016-06-06 16:46:40

“…”remember the blade being GOLD”

Never trust spellcheck – it will betray you.

 
Name (required)
E-mail (required - never shown publicly)
URI

;) :yes: :thanks: :skull: :shifty: :p :ohnoes: :notworthy: :no: :love: :lol: :hattip: :giggle: :facepalm: :evil: :eek: :cry: :cool: :confused: :chicken: :boogie: :blush: :blankstare: :angry: :D :) :(

Your Comment (smaller size | larger size)

You may use <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong> in your comment.

Navigation

Search

Archives

November 2017
S M T W T F S
« Oct    
 1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
2627282930  

Other

Add to Technorati Favorites

Syndication