Archive for February, 2011

Frank Buckles, last WWI Doughboy, dies at 110

Monday, February 28th, 2011

Frank Buckles, during a Veteran’s Day ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery at Arlington, Virginia, 2007, left, and in his U.S. Army enlistment photo, 1917.

Frank Woodruff Buckles lied about his age and joined the Army in August of 1917 when he was 16 years old. Since he was anxious to see action, he volunteered to drive ambulances, a duty that he had heard would get him to the Western front the fastest. He was deployed in December of that year, sailing to England on the Carpathia, the ship that rescued the survivors of the Titanic, then going on to various places in France.

“The little French children were hungry,” Mr. Buckles recalled in a 2001 interview for the Veterans History Project of the Library of Congress. “We’d feed the children. To me, that was a pretty sad sight.”

Mr. Buckles escorted German prisoners of war back to their homeland after the Armistice, then returned to America and later worked in the Toronto office of the White Star shipping line.

He traveled widely over the years, working for steamship companies, and he was on business in Manila when the Japanese occupied it following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. He was imprisoned by the Japanese, losing more than 50 pounds, before being liberated by an American airborne unit in February 1945.

He worked for a steamship until he retired in the mid-1950s, then he ran a cattle farm for another 50 or so years. As one of very few remaining World War I veterans, Buckles was a frequent participant in parades and national memorial events during the past decade. He was extensively interviewed, relaying his unique memories of the Great War. For instance, he told an interviewer how he had seen veterans of the Crimean War in a ceremony in England. That’s the Charge of the Light Brigade war, from the 1850s. One 110-year-old man connected us to so much history that seems so distant when we read about it.

He passed away on Sunday at his home in Charles Town, West Virginia. In 2007, he was one of four U.S. World War I veterans still alive, two of whom served Stateside and one with Canadian forces in Britain, so even then Buckles was the only surviving veteran of the Western front. As of February 2010, he was the last US World War I veteran alive and only one of three people remaining in the world who had served in the war in any capacity.

Now there are only two: Claude Choules, of the British Royal Navy, now living in Australia, and awesomely, Florence Green, of the British Women’s Royal Air Force, now living in England. Florence joined the Women’s Royal Air Force right at the end of the war, in September 1918, when she was 17. She worked in the mess halls of two Norfolk airbases. Choules saw much action from 1916 onwards, serving on the HMS Revenge, and witnessing the scuttling of the German fleet at Scapa Flow, Scotland, on June 21, 1919.

The Veterans’ History Project and the Library of Congress have an exceptional series of interviews with Frank Buckles, plus documents and pictures from his collection online. It’s not to be missed, seriously. Then when you’re done being fascinated by Frank, check out the rest of the VHP’s World War I archive.

Milton’s poems bound in murderer skin on display

Sunday, February 27th, 2011

Poetical Works of John Milton bound in human fleshA very special 1852 edition of The Poetical Works of John Milton was put on public display for the first time at the Westcountry Studies Library on February 26th as part of Devon’s Local History Day. As you might have cleverly deduced from the title, what makes this volume special is that it was bound in the skin of executed murderer George Cudmore.

George Cudmore, a short, humpbacked rat-catcher, was convicted in 1830 of poisoning his wife Grace by putting arsenic in food and medicine. He claimed to have been driven to the act by his lover Sarah Dunn. Dunn confessed that she had seen him messing around with a white powder, that she had told him not to poison his wife as he would be hanged. He put it in his wife’s elder tea anyway and she saw him do it without stopping him. She said that even though she wasn’t actively involved in the murder, she did let it happen and she did live “in criminal intercourse” with Cudmore, so she felt she was equally guilty.

The jury disagreed. Dunn was acquitted and Cudmore convicted at the Lent Assizes in March, 1830. He was sentenced to hang, and to have his cadaver donated to the Devon and Exeter Hospital for dissection. On March 25th, George Cudmore was hanged from his neck until dead as Dunn watched. Cudmore’s last request was that she be be kept in Devon County Gaol and made to witness his execution. For some reason that is unclear, they fulfilled his request even though she had been judged not guilty. She reportedly fell into hysterics and fainted when he dropped.

His corpse was promptly sent to the Devon and Exeter Hospital where it was promptly dissected. It’s unclear exactly how it got from the hospital onto a book, but it’s thought that a portion of his skin fell into the hands of one Mr. W. Clifford, an Exeter bookseller, in 1853. He dressed it white (which I gather is some kind of tanning process) and bound Tegg’s 1852 edition of Milton’s Works with Cudmore’s skin. From Clifford it entered into the collection of Ralph Sanders, Esq., who left it to Exeter’s Albert Memorial Museum. Eventually it wound up in the Westcountry Studies Library where it remained in the rare book collection, out of public view, until a couple of days ago.

Senior assistant librarian Tony Rouse said: ‘It is certainly an unusual and grisly thing, but if it weren’t for the description, it would be difficult to discern its past.

‘There is no hair or stray nipple or anything like that. It is outwardly unremarkable but a closer inspection reveals it to be a surprising artefact.’

No hair or stray nipple?! EVIL DEAD LIED TO ME!1

The book is going on display this year because the theme of Local History Day is crime and punishment. There will be other talks and exhibits on the theme, including lectures on other Devon executions and witch trials.

A new old face for Otzi

Saturday, February 26th, 2011

This year marks the 20th anniversary of the discovery of Otzi the Iceman. On September 19, 1991, tourists Helmut and Erika Simon stumbled on a mummified corpse lying on his front embedded in the ice of the Ötztal Alps, just 100 yards inside the Italian border. At first authorities thought he was recently deceased and thus dug him out in a slapdash manner, damaging him with jackhammers and allowing lookie-loos to collect pieces of his clothing and accessories.

It was only after he was sent to the morgue that people realized he was 5,300 years old, Europe’s oldest natural mummy. He’s been on display in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology since 1998, where a panoply of researchers study him, regularly releasing new information about his life and death.

This year, the museum plans a variety of events and new exhibits to celebrate the 20th anniversary, including a new state-of-the-art reconstruction model of what Otzi might have looked like. There have been earlier attempts using anatomical data and measurements. In 1993, National Geographic published a reconstruction done by anthropologically-trained artist John Gurche, but he didn’t have a 3D cast of the skull to work from, which is a major stumbling block to creating anything like an accurate facial reconstruction. Gurche had to use CT scans and pictures as the basis for his model.

Now Alfons and Adrie Kennis, two Dutch experts in anthropological reconstruction models have created a new model of Otzi to display at the South Tyrol Museum’s Otzi20 exhibit. They used the latest scientific information and an exact 3D copy of the skull created from the most recent X-rays and CAT scans.

This latest work by these artists, famous for their reconstructions, shows a denizen of the Alps from the Stone Age, striking in the lifelike nature of every detail, from his skin colour down to the smallest wrinkle on his brow: of medium height, slight yet wiry, with narrow, sharp features, an unruly beard and tanned skin.

He looks much older than the earlier reconstructions. He was 40 when he died, so he was at first depicted as a strapping middle-aged man. However recent findings suggest that Otzi would have been weatherbeaten and prematurely aged by the harsh environment of the Copper Age Alps, and that his eyes were brown, not blue as previously thought.

Here’s the new reconstruction on the left, the early 90s version on the right:

New reconstruction of Otzi the Iceman, courtesy National Geographic Germany 1993 National Geographic reconstruction of Otzi

Nine Wari tombs found in Cuzco

Friday, February 25th, 2011

Archaeologists excavating one of the last standing Inca citadels in the Andean jungle region of Cuzco, Peru have discovered nine tombs from the pre-Incan Wari culture. Some Wari artifacts were first found last July; then over the next three months the tomb complex was discovered and finally announced to the public Wednesday.

Wari noble gold and silver piecesOne of the tombs includes gold and silver burial goods which mark it as having belonged to a person of high status. Archaeologists have dubbed him the “Lord of Vilca” in a nod to the Lord of Sipán, the Moche aristocrat whose intact burial (from ca. 100 A.D.) was found in northern Peru in 1987 still full of jewelry, art and precious metals. The Lord of Vilca was buried with a large Y-shaped silver chestplate, a silver mask, two gold bracelets and two walking sticks laminated with silver.

The Wari civilization flourished between 600 and 1100 A.D., 300 years before the Inca built the largest pre-Columbian empire on the continent. The Lord of Vilca’s tomb dates to right in the middle of that range, around 1000 A.D.

The tombs are within the archaeological complex of Espiritu Pampa, in the Cuzco district of Vilcabamba, some 1,100 kilometers (680 miles) south-east of Lima.

Vilcabamba was the last refuge of Inca resistance after Spanish conquistadors captured and executed the Inca emperor in 1532. The last resistance leader, Tupac Amaru I, was captured by the Spaniards after fleeing the site and executed in 1572.

It is a “spectacular, truly surprising” discovery, said archaeologist Luis Lumbreras, former director of the National Cultural Institute (INC).

“This will make us revise part of Inca history.”

Historians previously thought the Wari civilization had reached Cuzco, but only up to the mountainous sierra. The Espiritu Pampa jungle region where Vilcabamba is found was thought to have been inhabited only by the Incas. It might suggest a closer link between the rise of the Inca Empire and its Wari predecessor.

Wari burial complexes are always found inside cities and were part of complex formal funerary rites. They don’t yet know the exact dates and extent of the citadel in which the tombs were found, but the burial complex covers an area of 450 square meters (about 4,844 square feet).

Add this find to the 2008 discovery of a Wari city in Chiclayo, way up north, and the enormous reach of the culture becomes unmistakable. They covered almost the entire length of modern Peru and more than halfway inland.

Nine Wari tombs found in Vilcabamba Wari reach

Buy your own genuine historic Soviet space capsule

Thursday, February 24th, 2011

The first man in space, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, blasted out of the Earth’s atmosphere on April 12, 1961 in a wee little sphere called the Vostok 3KA-3 Space Capsule. Three weeks before that momentous day, the Soviets sent up the last of their test spheres, the Vostok 3KA-2, carrying a mannequin named Ivan Ivanovich and a dog named Zvezdochka into low earth orbit.

The Soviet Vostok 3KA-2 Space CapsuleAfter completing one full orbit of the earth, the capsule reentered the atmosphere with only minor scorching and landed in a gully near the city of Izhevsk. Ivan Ivanovich ejected as planned before landing, and Zvezdochka emerged from the capsule unharmed.

V.P. Efimoz, one of the people who worked on the pressurized spacesuit that kept Ivan and later Yuri intact, described its retrieval: “[arriving] by sleigh, the rescue team reached the landing place of the descent capsule. Half scorched, slightly bent over the ground, it seemed an enormous animal driven too hard, lying in a narrow snow-covered gully, the snow melting around the charred and still hot body of the unit. Attached to it by slings, lay sprawling the voluminous canopy of the parachute.”

With the success of this test mission using an identical twin of the capsule Gagarin would stuff himself into, the historic mission to put a man in space got the final green light.

Ivan Ivanovich is on display at the Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum. Gagarin’s Vostok 3KA-3, later renamed Vostok 1, is part of the permanent collection of Russian rocket company Rkk Energia’s Museum outside Moscow. The Vostok 3KA-2 is going up for auction at Sotheby’s New York on April 12, 2011, the 50th anniversary of the first man in space.

The bottom half is blackened from scorching while reentering the Earth’s atmosphere. The top half of the outside shell, made of synthetic materials, is bronze-colored and bears a huge dent. Inside, the cramped space is littered with remains of old wires and the ejector seat.

“These were very primitive,” Redden said. “There was a good shot that whoever went into space was not coming back.”

And even if they did, just the fact of being shot into space in a 2.5 meter (8 feet) cabin would be challenge enough.

Sotheby’s estimates the sale price at $2-10 million. The seller is an anonymous American who bought it from Russia (thank you, post-Soviet cowboy capitalism) some years ago. Plutocrats with money to burn are major buyers on the Russian antiquities and collectibles market right now, so my guess is that this item will sell big and will end up back in Russia. Here’s hoping it goes on public display instead of being squirreled away into another secret collection like the one it came from.

Rare color film of JFK’s last night alive posted

Wednesday, February 23rd, 2011

Rare color footage of John and Jackie Kennedy taken at the Rice Hotel in Houston just before 9:00 PM on Nov. 21, 1963, has been restored and posted online by the Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza.

The film was made by Roy Botello who was in town for a convention of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) held at the Rice. He was the first Scholarship Corporation Chairman of LULAC in San Antonio, so as a high level functionary he had a unique opportunity to film John and Jackie Kennedy up close on his Bolex 8mm camera as they arrived and greeted dignitaries in the ballroom.

There is no audio so we although we see the President and the First Lady at the microphone, we can’t hear him speak or hear Jacqueline Kennedy wow the crowd when she addresses them in fluent Spanish without notes, but she certainly looks the part in her black dress and triple strand of pearls. Audio recordings of the event capture the crowd shouting “ole!” after she finished speaking.

Botello returned home to San Antonio the next day. He put the film in a steel case, locked it in a drawer and kept it there for almost 50 years. Last year it finally saw the light of day again after a reporter tracked him down and asked to see it. After that first public viewing, Roy Botello decided to donate the film to the Sixth Floor Museum.

The museum has restored it, commissioning a new film-to-video transfer, correcting the color and exposure, and posted the raw footage online. With this latest addition to its collection, the Sixth Floor Museum now has home movies of every city Kennedy visited during his final trip to Texas, minus Fort Worth.

Trove of Thomas Jefferson’s books found in St. Louis

Tuesday, February 22nd, 2011

Freart de Chambray’s "Parallele de l'architecture antique avec la moderne" with calculations by Thomas Jefferson in the marginResearchers have found 28 books in 74 volumes from Thomas Jefferson’s last library in the Coolidge collection of St. Louis’ Washington University. This makes Washington University’s library the third largest repository of Thomas Jefferson’s books after the Library of Congress and the University of Virginia. Jefferson sold 6,700 of his books to the Library of Congress after the British burned Washington, D.C. in 1814, and he founded the University of Virginia in 1819, so that’s impressive company for Washington University to keep.

After Jefferson gave the Library of Congress most of his books, he immediately started to collect again. Those 1,600 books he purchased in the last decade of his life are known as the retirement collection, and they were unfortunately scattered in 1829, three years after his death, when his relatives sold them at auction to pay his extensive debts. Researchers at Monticello, Thomas Jefferson’s estate and a National Historic Landmark, have been trying to track down the retirement collection since 2004 so it can be digitized and made available to the public in an online database called Thomas Jefferson’s Libraries.

Plutarch's Lives with handwritten note by Thomas JeffersonEndrina Tay, the Thomas Jefferson’s Libraries project manager, found a number of auction catalogs from the 1829 sale, but they didn’t include the names of the buyers. Then she found a letter from Joseph Coolidge, the husband of one of Jefferson’s granddaughters, asking the husband of another Jefferson granddaughter to secure some of the books for him at auction.

Coolidge wrote Nicholas Philip Trist, who married another Jefferson granddaughter, saying, “If there are any books which have T. J. notes or private marks, they would be interesting to me.” He added, “I beg you to interest yourself in my behalf in relation to the books; remember that his library will not be sold again, and that all the memorials of T. J. for myself and children, and friends, must be secured now! — this is the last chance!”

When Ms. Tay found the letter “C” next to some of the lots in one of the catalogs, she thought those volumes might have been successfully purchased by Coolidge. Then another piece of the puzzle snapped into place.

While [Tay] was tracking down the retirement library, one of her fellow Monticello scholars, Ann Lucas Birle, was researching a book about the Coolidges and, searching Google Books, found a reference in The Harvard Register to a gift in 1880 from a Coolidge son-in-law, Edmund Dwight, to a fellow Harvard alumnus and possible relative, William Greenleaf Eliot, a founder of Washington University.

“It could have been his parents have died, he’s left with 3,000 books, what should he do with these that would really do good?” Dean Baker said. “A great-uncle just founded a new university. If you send them to a university that doesn’t even have 3,000 books, it could make a world of difference.”

Tay and Birle alerted Washington University to their find, and rare books curator Erin Davis and assistant archivist Miranda Rectenwald scoured the rare book collection for all the ones donated by the Coolidge family in 1880, which had long since been dispersed throughout the library’s holdings with no particular indicators of their origin. They used a turn of the century ledger that included a listing of the Coolidge books for reference and were able to track down the Jefferson volumes.

Their work isn’t over yet, though. The curators will continue to examine the Coolidge collection for any more Jefferson books that have escaped notice. University officials are on cloud nine, needless to say. Shirley K. Baker, Washington University’s vice chancellor for scholarly resources and dean of university libraries, enthuses: “It is particularly appropriate that these books should be here in Missouri. It was Jefferson who acquired this land in the Louisiana Purchase, and St. Louis was the jumping-off point for the expedition Jefferson sent to explore the new territory.”

Bust of James Watt cast from old mold and 3D scan

Monday, February 21st, 2011

Watt's garret workshop at his home near BirminghamWhen James Watt, inventor of the separate condenser (an essential improvement to the Newcomen steam engine that helped usher in the Industrial Revolution) retired to his home near Birmingham in 1800, his wife exiled him to the garret room where he could tinker loudly and make stinky messes far from the main living areas. He continued to make new inventions in that garret workshop, among them two machines for copying sculptures.

He died in 1819, and his workshop was locked and left untouched until 1853 when his biographer J.P. Muirhead was allowed to view it. After that, visitors to Watt’s home — he became something of an Industrial Revolution hero and his house was a pilgrimage site — would sometimes get a glimpse of the garret, but nothing was touched or moved.

Watt's workshop at the Science Museum of LondonWhen the house was demolished in 1924, the entire workshop, including the door, window, skylight, floorboards and 6,500 objects used or created by Watt, was moved to London’s Science Museum where it was on display for years until the gallery it was in was closed.

On March 23, the workshop will finally open again to visitors. In preparation for the new exhibit, museum staff examined a collection of 26 plaster molds Watt had created, some of them still bound in the original string. There were molds for a lion, a variety of deities and one person that curators thought might just be James Watt himself.

Plaster mold of James Watt bust, tied with original string, 1807The early 19th century mould consisted of 25 separate pieces and was thought too fragile to allow a plaster cast to be taken.

It was examined with a colour triangulation scanner to produce a perfect digital “cast”, enabling a sculpture to be created. […]

Andrew Nahum, Principal Curator of Technology and Engineering, said: “Finding a new representation of a major national figure like Watt is a real discovery, a quite exceptional event. The bust is not in the historical record and its display in the gallery will be the first time it has ever been seen in public.

“Aside from the scarcity of the image, the bust itself is of high artistic quality. In fact, Watt devoted much of his own time in later years to copying sculpture.

“Perhaps surprisingly, as a result of his interest in this area, the Science Museum holds what may be Britain’s largest collection of early 19th century sculpture moulds.”

The Science Museum has a wonderful blog with a whole section about Watt’s workshop. It’s very much worth a read.

Here’s a rough sculpture of Watt’s bust cast from the mold compared to a late portrait. They’ll be making a neater one for the exhibit.

Bust of James Watt derived from the 1807 mold using 3D digital scanner James Watt portrait

Tour a reconstructed Roman villa

Sunday, February 20th, 2011

Wroxeter Roman town houseConstruction experts have built a Roman town house in Wroxeter Roman City in the British county of Shropshire using only traditional Roman tools, techniques and materials.

The house was designed by archaeologist Professor Dai Morgan Evans and took six months to build. The construction was filmed for a Channel Four series called Rome Wasn’t Built in a Day (which you can watch online if you’re in the UK or using a proxy).

It took a team of seven builders six months, 150 tonnes of sandstone bricks, 15 tonnes of lime mortar and 26 tonnes of plaster – all mixed by hand – 1,500 hand-cut timber joints and 2,600 hand-cut roof tiles to create the house, based on a real building excavated at Wroxeter, which was once the fourth largest city in Roman Britain and is now an archaeology visitor attraction in the care of English Heritage.

The workers, more used to plasterboard and plastic windows, had no experience of traditional techniques. A Channel 4 series, Rome Wasn’t Built In A Day, tracked their steep learning curve – and the running battle of the wheelbarrow.

The builders were incredulous when Evans insisted that, however advanced their plumbing and road-building, the Romans had no wheelbarrows, so everything had to be carried on to the site by hand. The builders kept smuggling in wheelbarrows; he kept throwing them out. When the roof boards were on, they wrote in giant letters “Romans had wheelbarrows” – now covered by the shingles.

“They absolutely did not have wheelbarrows,” Evans said. “I’ve done a lot of work on this now. They had wheelbarrows in China, but there is no record, drawing or evidence for a wheelbarrow anywhere in the Roman empire. The first reference I can find is Isidore of Seville, and that’s in the seventh century – centuries after our house.”

Think of all the massive construction projects all over the empire built with materials carried in baskets or one brick at a time. The mind boggles.

The town house includes servants’ quarters, small, dark, depressing bedrooms, and baths heated with the Roman hypocaust system of underfloor heating where a wood-burning furnace heated empty space left under the floors and inside the walls. This wouldn’t have been used to heat the living quarters, though. That job was left to coal braziers, but when Evans’ team tried it they had to douse the fires after just an hour because the carbon monoxide sensors were freaking out.

There were a few other concessions made to modern sensibilities, like fire exits and wheelchair-accessible pathways. The builders also left one room unfinished so visitors can see the process of construction. One wall shows in different sections bare stonework at the base, then wooden posts joined horizontally, and lastly the wattle and daub filling inside the wooden frame to create a solid wall.

The house officially opened to the public yesterday. For those of us not fortunate enough to visit in person, there’s a neat virtual tour on the Channel 4 website.

Egypt’s historical sites re-open tomorrow

Saturday, February 19th, 2011

Good news for tourism and the many Egyptians employed in the industry: Egypt’s archaeological sites and museums will re-open to the public Sunday, February 20th. In not so good news, though, looting and thefts during the anti-government protests were more prevalent than first realized.

Zahi Hawass has come under fire for claiming early on that no artifacts were stolen from the Cairo Museum during the break-in of January 28th. That turns out to have been false information since once museum curators did a complete inventory, 18 artifacts were found to have been stolen, including two gilded wood statues of King Tutankhamun and several other pieces from the Tutankhamun display.

The missing Heart Scarab of Yuya was recovered on the west side of the museum gardens, near the new bookshop. Wooden fragments belonging to the damaged New Kingdom coffin, still on the second floor of the museum, were also found in this area. The search team also found one of the eleven missing shabtis of Yuya and Thuya underneath a showcase. Fragments belonging to the statue of Tutankhamun being carried by the goddess Menkaret have been found; all the located fragments belong to the figure of Menkaret. The small figure of the king has not yet been found.

Dr. Hawass said it seems the looters dropped objects as they fled, and every inch of the museum must be searched before the Registration, Collections Management, and Documentation Department, which is overseeing the inventory, can produce a complete and final report of exactly what is missing.

Statue of Akhenaten found in a trash canThankfully four of the 18 have now been recovered, including the most valuable piece: a limestone statue of the Tut’s father, Pharaoh Akhenaten making offerings to the gods. Akhenaten was reviled after his death and his memory erased — cartouches with his name and statues with his likeness were destroyed — so this is a very rare surviving statue.

It was found by a 16-year-old boy near a garbage can in Tahrir Square. He was there protesting against the Mubarak regime. When he found the statue, he brought it home and his mother called her brother, a professor at the American University in Cairo. The brother, Dr. Sabry Abdel Rahman, called the Ministry of State for Antiquities Affairs and returned the statue last Wednesday.

It appears to be in good shape. Akhenaten was holding an offering table in his hands and that’s been removed, but the table was found earlier still on museum premises. This statue is slated to be the first piece restored.

Now for more bad news:

At Saqqara, the tomb of Hetepka was broken into, and the false door may have been stolen along with objects stored in the tomb. I have arranged for a committee to visit the tomb this coming Saturday to compare the alleged damage with earlier expedition photos. In Abusir, a portion of the false door was stolen from the tomb of Rahotep. In addition, break-ins have been confirmed at a number of storage magazines: these include ones in Saqqara, including one near the pyramid of Teti, and the magazine of Cairo University. I have created a committee to prepare reports to determine what, if anything, is missing from these magazines. The Egyptian Military caught and released thieves attempting to loot the site of Tell el Basta; the military also caught criminals trying to loot a tomb in Lisht. There have also been many reports of attacks on archaeological sites through the building of houses and illegal digging

Hawass is under a great deal of pressure right now, not just because of the damage and thefts, but also because there have been strikes demanding better jobs and decent pay, protests against his iron rule and corruption in the antiquities ministry. Although protesters asked for his resignation, Hawass has of course refused. “They say, ‘If you cannot give us a job, leave your job’—I cannot leave my job for some kids in the street,” he said. “If I feel one day that I’m not doing something good for my country, I will resign.”




February 2011


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